While most people think that the immune system is there to protect us from pathogens, we know that you know better. For those more plugged into the science of immunology, you know that the immune system is there to identify self and non-self cells and molecules. Human immune systems can make generalized identifications of non-self things AND recognize specific non-self things. This brings us to the innate immune system and Toll-like receptors (TLR).
The Filtration Part of “Kidney”
The kidneys are an underrated pair of organs. We’re not sure why. Maybe it’s because if you lose them, you can still continue to live with some help from dialysis. This is in opposition to losing a heart, brain, or liver. But despite the way some people brush off kidneys as less than significant, life sort of sucks without them. The kidneys’ job isn’t “making urine”; that’s just a fun waste product! Nope. Kidneys regulate what stays or leaves the blood; they also control blood pressure and play a role in building strong bones.
A Funny-Looking Dog
The warm days of summer are upon us, and no one feels the heat like a Pug. So, if you own or are a fan of Pugs, Bulldogs, and other brachycephalic dogs, we’ve got the newsletter and science jewelry for you! Of course, dog lovers and curious genetics folks will find this interesting too.
You’ll Miss Them When They’re Gone
Teeth are tiny, hard growths that we all take for granted. For those who have ever had a toothache, you’ll know that the simple act of eating something you love when you’re hungry, can be impossible. Even things like gargling, drinking cold water, and brushing your teeth become difficult and painful with a tooth injury or festering cavity. In this newsletter, we’ll take a look at what teeth are made of and include some fun, toothy facts about these tiny, but important chewers.
Most organs have specialized jobs, but not the pancreas. This organ has two specialized jobs and straddles both the exocrine and endocrine systems. On one hand, the pancreas is responsible for secreting all types of digestive enzymes into the first part of the small intestine (called the duodenum). On the other hand, the pancreas also secretes insulin, a hormone that regulates blood sugar. In this newsletter, we’ll do a deep dive into this interesting organ.