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Knees and elbows are hinge joints that evolved to create back and forth movement of the limb. In the knee’s case, it allows the lower leg to bend back. In the elbow’s case, the forearm bends up, towards the face. While both joints allow some sort of rotation of the limb, these joints don’t take twisting motions very well. And this is where evolution bumps up against human sports and we’re sorry to say, knees and elbows take a lot of punishment.

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Twins are really cool and in this newsletter, we’re going to tell you all about how twins are formed and why they give us so much insight into ourselves. There are two types of twins, identical and fraternal. Identical twins share 100% of their genes and are literal copies of each other (genetically speaking). Fraternal twins share 50% of their genes; this is the same as regular siblings except fraternal twins share a womb before they’re born.

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Would it surprise you that all living organisms are a complex (or sometimes very simple) layer of flesh and bones wrapped around an empty tube? This tube, while seemingly boring and unimportant, is how living organisms stay alive. You see, our bodies are open systems that interact with the environment. The eyes, nose, ears, skin, and tongue sense different stimuli and relay that information to the brain. The endocrine system is how the brain “talks” to all the organs. The lungs, heart, and blood vessels bring in oxygen and pump it to all the cells. But none of these processes would be possible without the digestive system. This is the empty tube that was referred to at the beginning of this newsletter.

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You’ve most likely heard many scientists say that proteins are the stuff of life but what exactly are proteins and why are they so important? Well, let’s start from the beginning. Living things are made up of four major macromolecules. Macro meaning large. So, large molecules. They are as follows: nucleic acids, lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins. Each has a specific function in the body.

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Your liver is an amazing organ. It’s a multi-tasker that detoxifies stuff in the blood, screens incoming chemicals from the digestive tract, stores vitamins and other necessary molecules, and even helps with getting rid of old red blood cells. Oh, and it makes bile to aid digestion of food in the duodenum. Most people go through life never giving their liver a second thought, but sometimes, it’s nice to take the time to appreciate this busy organ that also regenerates at blazingly fast speeds. After all, without your liver, you would have a hard time staying a-live.

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